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Deploying RhoConnect with High Availability on Amazon Web Services

This tutorial will guide you through setting up a Redis stack and a RhoConnect application stack in the Amazon Web Service (AWS) cloud.

The RhoConnect application stack is scalable; it uses load balancing to automatically distribute and balance the incoming application traffic among all the instances you are running. You will set the maximum number of instances that the load balancer can create for your RhoConnect application.

Logging onto the Amazon Web Service

Go to the Amazon Web Service (AWS) Console and click on the Sign in to the AWS Console button. You can sign into an existing AWS account, or create a new one.

AWS login button

Or you can open the URL for your account directly if you have the account number:

https://<your_account_number>.signin.aws.amazon.com/console

Enter your User Name and Password for your AWS account, then click the Sign in button.

AWS login page

Creating a Custom RhoConnect Image

In the AWS Management Console, change the Region to US West (N. California).

NOTE: The stacks created in this document only work in the N. California region.

Cloud Formation page N California region

We provide a few public preconfigured images that contains a blank RhoConnect app for Us West N. California region:

  • ami-cbc59e8e (RhoConnect-3.1.2 with Nginx and phusion passenger)
  • ami-0dfca748 (RhoConnect-3.2.0 with Nginx and cluster of thin servers)

Launching an Instance

To create your own RhoConnect Image, launch an EC2 Image:

Click the EC2 tab, click EC2 Dashboard, then click the Launch Instance button.

Launch Instance button

Click the Launch Classic Wizard radio button. Click Continue.

create new instance classic wizard

Requesting the Instance

In the Choose an AMI section, click the Community AMIs tab. Then paste in the AMI ID, i. e. ami-cbc59e8e. When the preconfigured RhoConnect AMI appears, click Select.

request instances - choose AMI

In the Instance Details section, select the Instance Type (such as Large).

request instances - instance details

In the Instance Details section, Advanced Instance Options screen, change nothing. Click Continue.

In the Instance Details section, Add Tags screen, enter a name for your custom RhoConnect EC2 instance in the Value Column of the Name key, then click Continue.

request instances - add tags

In the Create Key Pair section, select your existing key pair or create a new keypair.

request instances - key pair

Requesting the Instance – Configuring the Firewall

request instances - configure firewall

In the Configure Firewall section, click the Create New Security Group radio button.

Click the Add Rule button to add each port.

  • Add port 22 for SSH.
  • Add port 80 for HTTP.
  • Add port 6379 for redis.

You may use a preexisting security group if it has ports 22, 80, and 6379 open.

Enter a firewall name and a group description, then click Continue.

request instances - review

Make sure all the instance information is correct as shown on the Review page and then click Launch.

In the window titled “Launch Instance Wizard”, click Close and wait for your instance to be Running.

Customizing the Instance

instances - instances

In the EC2 tab, click on Instances.

For Viewing, select Running Instances. Select your newly created RhoConnect instance and scroll down to see Private DNS in the lower section of the My Instances screen.

running instances - public dns

You will need:

  • your keypair (the .pem file AWS gives you when the keypair is created)
  • the public DNS name of the Instance, which you will see as the public DNS name in the running instance. For Example: ec2-184-72-16-39.us-west-1.compute.amazonaws.com.
  • the username: ec2-user

From the command line, use ssh to login to the running instance, using the keypair, DNS name, and user name. For example:

$ ssh -i ~/.ssh/devkey.pem ec2-user@ec2-50-18-229-26.us-west-1.compute.amazonaws.com

Replace the blank ‘rhoapp’ application in the /opt/nginx/html folder with your app, and set its owner as ‘nginx’ user.

$ cd /opt/nginx/html
# ... copy your application here under name 'rhoapp'
$ sudo chown -R nginx:nginx rhoapp

You can test the application.

$ sudo /etc/init.d/redis start
$ sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start

If your instance based on ami-0dfca748 (RhoConnect-3.2.0) image, then you need to do one more step:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/thin start

If everything is configured properly, then you can login to the RhoConnect web console in your browser by using the instance’s public DNS name as the URL in your browser. When you are done, you can stop the application.

$ sudo /etc/init.d/nginx stop
$ sudo /etc/init.d/redis stop

Do not forget also stop cluster of thin servers if your instance based on ami-0dfca748 (RhoConnect-3.2.0):

$ sudo /etc/init.d/thin stop

Create the Image

Create Image popup

In the EC2 tab, right-click the RhoConnect instance and select Create Image (EBS AMI).

Create Image

In the Create Image window, enter the image name and description for your custom image. Then click Create This Image.

Create Image request

In the Create Image window showing that the request is received, click on “View pending image: ami-XXXXXXXX to go to your Amazon Machine Image.

amazon machine image

Copy the AMI number; you will use it when you create the scaleable RhoConnect stack.

Creating the Scalable RhoConnect Stack

Click the Cloud Formation tab.

Cloud Formation page

Ensure that the Region selected is US West (N. California) and Click the Create New Stack button.

Cloud Formation page new stack button

Create Stack – Select Template

In the Select Template section, you must select the template file for your redis stack. This is the template to run the AMI image with the Redis server.

Create Stack Select Template window

First, enter the name that you want for your stack into the Stack Name field.

Now get the template by either providing the URL for the template file, or by uploading the template file.

Providing the URL for the Template File

Click the Provide a Template URL radio button.

If your custom image based on ami-cbc59e8e(RhoConnect-3.1.2) image, then copy the following URL and paste it into the text field below the Provide a Template URL radio button:

https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/rhoconnect-ca-deploy/rhoconnect_template.txt

If your custom image based on ami-0dfca748 (RhoConnect-3.2.0), then use this URL:

https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/rhoconnect-ca-deploy/rhoconnect_template-3.2.txt

Uploading the Template File

Click the Upload a Template File radio button.

In another browser window, go to https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/rhoconnect-ca-deploy/rhoconnect_template.txt if your custom image based on ami-cbc59e8e (RhoConnect-3.1.2).

If your custom image based on ami-0dfca748 (RhoConnect-3.2.0), then to go https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/rhoconnect-ca-deploy/rhoconnect_template-3.2.txt.

Save that text file to your computer.

Click the Choose File button, and navigate to and select your template file.

Click Continue.

Create Stack – Specify Parameters

Create Stack Specify Parameters window

In the Create Stack: Specify Parameters window:

  • Enter the AMI image number that you saved earlier.
  • Enter the maximum number of RhoConnect application servers that you want to run in your stack. Default = 2.
  • Enter the name for your existing EC2 KeyPair to enable SSH access to the stack instances.

Click Continue.

Create Stack – Review

Create Stack Review window

Click Continue to see a window entitled \“Create Stack\” showing that the stack is being created.

Create Stack being created window

Click Close.

Checking the Status

In the AWS Management Console, Cloud Formation tab, click the checkbox for your stack. To see the progress of the creation of your stack, click the Refresh button; the status should become CREATE_COMPLETE soon.

To see the progress of the components in your stack, you can click the Events tab. You can click the refresh button to see the progress.

AWS Management CREATE_COMPLETE window

Using the RhoConnect Application URL

In the AWS Management Console, Cloud Formation tab, click the Outputs tab. You will see a list of the Stack Outputs.

AWS Management Stack Outputs window

At the top of the output list is the URL of the RhoConnect application. You can click on it to see the RhoConnect Console for the running RhoConnect server.

RhoConnect Console

To use this scaleable RhoConnect server in your Rhodes application, copy the URL for the RhoConnect application into the rhoconfig.txt file in your Rhodes application as the syncserver variable. For example:

syncserver = http://rhoconnec-RhoLoadB-OX64XR1IKNT2-1364705573.us-west-1.elb.amazonaws.com

Deleting the Stack

You are charged for the stack that you have created, by the hour. When you no longer want to use the stack, you can delete it by right-clicking on the stack name in the AWS Management Console, Cloud Formation tab, and clicking Delete Stack.

Delete Stack

High Availability/Failover for Redis server

The described architecture has a weak spot: a single point of failure (SPOF). If the Redis server is down or stops responding, then the entire Rhoconnect stack stops functioning. To address this issue, we need to implement failover — the continuation of a service after the failure of one or more of its components. Redis provides a very simple solution to configure master-slave replication that allows slave Redis servers to be exact copies of master servers. So if the master server goes down, we can issue a SLAVEOF NO ONE command to the slave and then switch RhoConnect apps to use the slave that is now the master.

The following is a one possible scenario of how it might be done on the Amazon cloud.

Redis High Availability proposal:

  • RhoConnect applications do not send queries directly to the Redis server, but communicate with the Redis Elastic Load Balancer (RELB).
  • RELB has 2 monitor servers, both running Haproxy and Monit services. RELB responsibility is to do a health check of monitor servers and to distribute incoming traffic to TCP proxy service.
  • Each monitor machine has a TCP proxy which relays its traffic to the master redis server.
  • Monit service role is to detect failure of redis servers and start recovery process.
  • Monit checks redises on a regular basis. It runs a failover script /home/ubuntu/failover if there is an failure to get a valid response upon performing a PING command three times in a row.
  • Failover script does automatic slave –> master promotion in the case of master failure, and reconfigures Haproxy service to relay traffic to the new master redis. It spins up a new Redis EC2 instance and sets it as slave on the new master.
  • The failover script uses AWS simpleBD service to store current redis servers configuration (master/slave/backup). So, if another instance of monitor server detects failure and calls the failover script, it will know the current status of the redis servers and will wait until the recovery process that was initiated by another Monit service is over. Finally, the failover script reconfigures and restarts the Monit service to track a new pair of master/slave redis servers.
  • 1 Redis master
  • 1 Redis slave

The URL for the CloudFormation template that implements the described proposal is available here https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/rhoconnect-ca-deploy/rhoconnect-ha.txt and can be used for evaluation purposes.

The template will create a sample scalable rhoconnect stack with 2 elastic load balancers and 5 EC2 instances.

  • RhoConnect Load Balancer
  • 1 EC2 instance of RhoConnect application
  • Redis Load Balancer
  • 2 EC2 instances of monitor servers (Haproxy/Monit)
  • 2 EC2 instances of redis servers (master/slave)

Setting up Redis Servers Horizontal Scaling

Under heavy load single Redis server might be a bottleneck in RhoConnect stack performance due to high network traffic, large memory footprints of stored data in server instance. To address redis server performance issues RhoConnect (>= v4.0.0) supports multiple Redis instances per app, and evenly distributing load across available Redis server instances.

Configure RhoConnect app to support multiple Redis instances

Edit your app settings/settings.yml file and replace :redis one liner by array of redis servers you are going to use:

# ...
:production: 
  :licensefile: settings/license.key
  :syncserver: http://localhost:9292/api/application/
  :push_server: http://appname:secret@localhost:8675/
  # Two or more redis servers per app 
  :redis:
    - localhost:6379
    - localhost:6380
    - localhost:6381
    - localhost:6382
    # ...

Create a custom Amazon Image with multiple Redis instances

The following recommendations are based on Ubuntu Amazon image, where RhoConnect Redis package installed and you wanted host 4 redis instances on ports 6379, 6380, 6381, and 6382 respectively.

Rename /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis.conf configuration file to /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6379.conf and make sure that it has settings for the 1st instance:

...
daemonize yes
pidfile /var/run/redis/redis6379.pid
port 6379

# DO NOT FORGET comment persistence cmds
# save ...
...

For other servers create /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6380.conf, /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6381.conf and /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6382.conf files and do similar setting for corresponding redis instances:

# File /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6380.conf
...
daemonize yes
pidfile /var/run/redis/redis6380.pid
port 6380
# DO NOT FORGET comment persistence cmds
...

# File /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6381.conf
...
daemonize yes
pidfile /var/run/redis/redis6381.pid
port 6381
# DO NOT FORGET comment persistence cmds
...

# File /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6382.conf
...
daemonize yes
pidfile /var/run/redis/redis6382.pid
port 6382
# DO NOT FORGET comment persistence cmds
...

Delete /etc/init/rhoconnect-redis.conf file if it’s there. Create upstart script /etc/init/rhoconnect-redis-6379.conf for the 1-st instance:

# /etc/init/rhoconnect-redis-6379.conf 

description "Redis Datastore Server"
# Redis is a key value in memory persistent datastore

start on (local-filesystems and runlevel [2345])
stop on runlevel [016]
expect fork
respawn

pre-start script
  mkdir -p /var/run/redis
  chown redis:redis /var/run/redis
end script

exec start-stop-daemon --start --chuid redis:redis --pidfile /var/run/redis/redis6379.pid --umask 007 \ 
--exec  /opt/rhoconnect/bin/redis-server -- /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6379.conf

Define upstart scripts /etc/init/rhoconnect-redis-6380.conf, /etc/init/rhoconnect-redis-6381.conf, and /etc/init/rhoconnect-redis-6382.conf for other instances:

# /etc/init/rhoconnect-redis-6380.conf
# ...
exec start-stop-daemon --start --chuid redis:redis --pidfile /var/run/redis/redis6380.pid --umask 007  \
--exec /opt/rhoconnect/bin/redis-server -- /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6380.conf

# /etc/init/rhoconnect-redis-6381.conf
# ...
exec start-stop-daemon --start --chuid redis:redis --pidfile /var/run/redis/redis6381.pid --umask 007  \
--exec /opt/rhoconnect/bin/redis-server -- /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6381.conf

# /etc/init/rhoconnect-redis-6382.conf
# ...
exec start-stop-daemon --start --chuid redis:redis --pidfile /var/run/redis/redis6382.pid --umask 007  \
--exec /opt/rhoconnect/bin/redis-server -- /opt/rhoconnect/etc/redis-6382.conf

We provide a public preconfigured image with above settings for Us West N. California region:

  • ami-94b496d1 (Redis-Server-2.6.7 with 4 instances on ports 6379, 6380, 6381, and 6382)

Amazon CloudFormation Template File

This Amazon CloudFormation template file shows how 2 redis servers with 4 instances per server might be used for a typical rhoconncect application.

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